American “Racism”

“Racism is not dead, but it is on life support — kept alive by politicians, race hustlers and people who get a sense of superiority by denouncing others as ‘racists’”

Thomas Sowell

64% of Americans believe that racism in the United States is a major problem. 57% of people agreed that “white people benefit from advantages in society that black people do not have.” Does institutional racism exist?

First off, what is racism?

Preface

racism

  • prejudice, discrimination, or antagonism directed against someone of a different race based on the belief that one’s own race is superior.

institutional racism

  • Racial discrimination that has become established as normal behaviour within a society or organization.

To dissect the question: “Does institutional racism still exist in our society?”, we must first realize that just because a field is disproportionately filled with one race of people- it does not inherently indicate an overarching institutional process that biased other specific races in participating.

For example: The NBA is 74% black (almost 6 x more compared to the US population) and 0.6% Asian (11 x less likely compared to the US population)

Concluding that the racial disproportion in the NBA meant there was some form of racial superiority or bias given to blacks and racial prejudice, discrimination, or antagonism given to Asians would be a non-sequiter

The Myth of Racist Hockey

Surprisingly, the third result for “Systemic Racism Proof” on Google shows an article from the “Alberta Civil Liberties Research Centre”

(yes this is Canada, not America, but bear with me here)

It states that,

“Organized hockey, from Minor Hockey to the NHL, is predominantly white… [and that there] is no explicit policy that excludes people of colour and Indigenous people from participating in organized hockey, yet there are few players of colour/Indigenous players…

Playing hockey … in Alberta is conducted in English. While there is no ‘intent’ to exclude non-English speaking, lower-income, shift-working, single-parent families from playing organized hockey, the system is designed by and for middle-class, professional white families.


Alberta Civil Liberties Research Centre

As you can see above, it will ignore the multitude of other sports institutions and choose one that happens to have a disproportionately white membership. The article states that the reason they believe that there is institutional racism in Hockey is because the organized hockey population does not reflect the national population. It even states that there is no intent for this disparity. Prejudice, discrimination, and antagonism (the prerequisites for racism) are premeditated activities.

If one proposes that the organized Hockey system itself has institutional systemic racism because of racial economic disparities, see the respective section below.

What Can We Call Racist?

To correctly call something institutionally racist, one must find axioms that specifically target certain races for being that certain race.

When asked for a specific example of individual racism- many resort to saying that racism exists institutionally as evidence that racism is alive and well. We will examine the literature and popular claims that support this idea of thinking.

I am also going to focus mainly on supposed white-on-black and white-on-hispanic racism as that has garnered the most attention. I will not be mentioning minority-on-white racism, historical institutional racism, or Native Americans (in which I do believe institutional racism occurs).

Without further ado, a look at the Criminal Justice, Education, Economic, and Environment System

Table of Contents

Criminal Justice System

    • The Myth of Racist Prosecution
    • The Myth of Racist Disparities in Sentencing
    • The Myth of Racist Judges
    • The Myth of Racist Police Brutality
    • The Myth that Blacks are Tried as Adults More due to Racism
    • The Myth of the Racist War on Drugs
      • Marijuana
      • Other Drugs
    • The Myth of Racism and Traffic Violations
    • The Myth of Racist Hate Crimes
    • Education System
    • The Myth of the Alleged School-To-Prison Pipeline
    • The Myth of Racist School Suspensions
    • The Myth of Racist Student Debt and Financial Help at the University
    • The Myth of Racist University Admissions
  • Economic System
    • The Myth of Racist Wage Disparities Between Ethnic Groups
    • The Myth of Racist Inheritance
    • The Myth of Call-Back Discrimination
    • The Myth of Racist Redlining and Home Loans
  • Environmental System
    • The Myth of Racist Lead Exposure

Criminal Justice System

Is it true that the Criminal Justice System from Police to Courts have inherent racial bias?

The Myth of Racist Prosecution

It is a fact that there are disproportionately more blacks in jail- does this automatically mean that the prison institution is inherently racist? There is a missing link before one can conclude there is institutional racism.

Just because there is a disproportionate rate of blacks in jail does not mean it must reflect racism- it could reflect crime rates. (The Koreans are underrepresented in prisons and there aren’t many claims on how the Koreans are unfairly and systematically more powerful)

Disproportionate rates of incarceration isn’t “racism” if these same groups are committing offences disproportionately. In fact, Black Americans are being incarcerated at the same rate in which they commit crimes. Any racial bias is negligible.

For proof of the above claim, see below.

The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) and the Uniform Crime Report (UCR).

The National Crime Victimization Survey, or NCVS, is a bi-annual survey done by the Department of Justice in which a random sample of approximately 135,000 households and 225,000 individuals are asked about their experience with crime over the last 6 months. Participants are asked if they have been the victim of a violent crime in the last 6 months. If they have then they are asked to answer various questions about the crime and the race of the offender of said crime (Though Eric Holder, Barack Obama’s Attorney General, discontinued interracial crime reporting). These bi-yearly interviews are combined on a yearly basis, weighted to eliminate bias in the sample based on demographic variables like sex and age and then used to estimate national crime rates. There is also very little to no incentive to lie on these surveys. 

The Uniform Crime Report, or UCR, is an aggregation of data sent to the FBI every year by police stations in which 94% of the total population is under jurisdiction. The data the FBI compiles includes information on the demographics of who is arrested every year. 

We can use this to compare the racial breakdown of offenders to the  racial breakdown of the prosecuted regarding rape, robbery, and assault.

Racial Difference in Crime Rates

First, let’s calculate the racial breakdown of rapes, assaults, and robberies, committed by blacks and whites in 2008 using “NCVS 2008”. 

2008
2008a

 The total number of crimes by race is calculated by: 

(%X Race only*Single Offender Victimizations)+(X Race Only*Multiple Offender Victimizations) 

(.2043,156,010)+(.22717,430)=801,660.64 Black Assaults
(.6093,156,010)+(.401717,430)=2,209,699.52 White Assaults 


(.321181,830)+(.52413,600)=65,493.83 Black Rapes
(.54181,830)+(.47613,600)=104,661.8 White Rapes


(.42314,500)+(.530215,540)=246,326.2 Black Robberies
(.366314,500)+(.099215,540)= 136,445.46 White Robberies

The rate of these crimes (how frequently each crime occurred among each race) is calculated by:

(Total Population of X Race/Crimes Committed by Race X).

In 2008, the population for blacks and whites respectively were 41,126,808 and 247,112,954 

(41,126,808/801,660.64)=51.3 Black Assault Rate
(247,112,954/2,209,699.52)=111.831 White Assault Rate


(41,126,808/65,493.83)=627.949 Black Rape Rate
(247,112,954/104,661.8)=2,361.062 White Rape Rate


(41,126,808/246,326.2)=166.961 Black Robbery Rate
(247,112,954/136,445.46)=1,811.075 White Robbery Rate

We can compare this to the Uniform Crime Report in 2008: 

(.2043,156,010)+(.22717,430)=801,660.64 Black Assaults
(.6093,156,010)+(.401717,430)=2,209,699.52 White Assaults


(.321181,830)+(.52413,600)=65,493.83 Black Rapes
(.54181,830)+(.47613,600)=104,661.8 White Rapes


(.42314,500)+(.530215,540)=246,326.2 Black Robberies
(.366314,500)+(.099215,540)= 136,445.46 White Robberies

The rate of these crimes (how frequently each crime occurred among each race) is calculated by:

(Total Population of X Race/Crimes Committed by Race X).

In 2008, the population for blacks and whites respectively were 41,126,808 and 247,112,954

  (41,126,808/801,660.64)=51.3 Black Assault Rate
(247,112,954/2,209,699.52)=111.831 White Assault Rate


(41,126,808/65,493.83)=627.949 Black Rape Rate
(247,112,954/104,661.8)=2,361.062 White Rape Rate


(41,126,808/246,326.2)=166.961 Black Robbery Rate
(247,112,954/136,445.46)=1,811.075 White Robbery Rate

We can compare this to the Uniform Crime Report in 2008: 

UCR Report

Assaults will have to include aggravated assaults and other assaults since the NCVS’s assault category includes all (non sexual) forms of assault. 

(112,325+319,498)= 431,823 Black Assaults
(208,081+645,870)=853,951 White Assaults


5,428 Black Rapes
10,990 White Rapes


56,948 Black Robberies
41,962 White Robberies

The rate of these crimes (how frequently each crime occurred among each race) is calculated by:

(Total Population of X Race/Crimes Committed by Race X).

In 2008, the population for blacks and whites respectively were 41,126,808 and 247,112,954 

(41,126,808/431,823)=95.24 Black Assault Rate
(247,112,954/853,951)=289.38 White Assault Rate


(41,126,808/5,428)=7576.79 Black Rape Rate
(247,112,954/41,962)=22485.26 White Rape


Rates(41,126,808/56,948)=722.18 Black Robbery Rate
(247,112,954/41,962)=5888.87 White Robbery Rate

 We can find the White to Black ratio to calculate disparities: 

(White Rate of Crime/ Black Rate of Crime)= White/Black Rate of Crime

NCVS:

(1811.07/16.996)= 10.85 White/Black Rate of Robbery

(111.83/51.3)= 2.18 White/Black Rate of Assault

(2361.06/627.95)= 3.76 White/Black Rate of Rape

UCR:

(5,888.06/722.18)= 8.15 White/Black Rate of Robbery

(289.38/95.24)= 3.04 White/Black Rate of Assault

(22,485.26/7,576.79)= 2.97 White/Black Rate of Rape

We then can measure how different the racial disparities reported by the NCVS and the UCR are by subtracting the NCVS disparity from the UCR disparity. A positive difference will indicate that the UCR over-estimates black crime relative to the NCVS. As can be seen below, most of the differences are actually negative suggesting that the UCR underestimates black crime relative to the NCVS. 

(UCR White/Black Rate of Crime- NCVS White/Black Rate of Crime)= Crime Difference between Whites and Blacks.

(8.15-10.85)= -2.7 Robbery Difference

(3.04-2.18)= -0.86 Assault Difference

(2.97-3.76)= -0.79 Rape Difference

Beyond 2008

The following is previous years analyzed through the same process from 2000 to 2008. (All interracial crime reporting of this nature was illegal throughout the Obama presidency)

Total Averages from 2000-2008

According to the aggregate of data from 2000-2008, there is a negligible difference between the UCR and the NCVS. Disproportionate incarceration is a result of disproportionate crimes, not racism.

The Myth of Racist Disparities in Sentencing

Do Black men have longer sentences for the same crime?

If not taking into account a multitude of factors, yes.

Most studies that show these grand disparities often do not control for the necessary factors. The less variables controlled for, the larger the disparity.

Using rich data linking federal cases from arrest through to sentencing, we find that initial case and defendant characteristics, including arrest offense and criminal history, can explain most of the large raw racial disparity in federal sentences. When these variables are taken into account, the disparity shrinks to 10%

Finally- if we control for verbal IQ (which may influence courtroom behavior), on top of past criminal record and lifetime violence, the gap vanishes.

Interestingly enough, the 10% disparity from this study is labeled under racism while the 63% disparity favoring women over men (by the same authors) is often left ignored.

The Myth of Racist Judges

Suspects arrested and percentage of prisoners under ever crime seem to be the same. The data doesn’t show much disparity.

The Myth of Racist Police Brutality

I would like to premise that I am not arguing for or against the existence of legitimate police brutality, I am arguing that if there is violence from police, it is not effected by racism.

The quickest way to debunk this myth is to shed light on the fact that white-against-black racism from police isn’t the problem- black suspects who are killed- are disproportionately killed by black cops rather than white cops. Furthermore, cops in general are more hesitant about shooting blacks as opposed to whites despite the fact that 40% of cops are killed by African Americans.

For a pure statistic argument:Blacks tend to behave differently when being arrested. A five-year study of non-felony arrests in San Francisco found that blacks were almost 10 times more likely than whites and Hispanics to be charged with resisting arrest. In Chicago, from 2014 to 2015, blacks accounted for 77 percent of arrests for obstruction of justice and resisting arrest (pg 4), meaning that blacks were almost 7 times more likely than non-blacks to be arrested on these charges. 

If these findings are typical, they help explain the disparity of police violence between Whites and Blacks.

The Uniform Crime Report state that blacks are about 29% of arrested people and 38% of all violent criminals. Therefore: we should expect a fatality proportion of around 29%- 38%.

Given this information, police fatalities do not appear to be motivated by racist police officers.

Finally, the argument of unarmed blacks being killed in an epidemic is blatantly false. Around 20 unarmed black men are unfortunately killed annually. Despite this number being statistically small, it gets even smaller. The “unarmed” label isn’t always as it seems. Many of these “unarmed” incidents occur when there is a violent assault on the officer, as unexpected unintended collateral damage, or other unforeseen factors.

The Myth that Blacks are Tried as Adults More due to Racism

Since Blacks commit more violent crime (see above) the disparity is due to the fact that juveniles are supposed to be tried as adults when their crimes are especially serious or when they have a history of crime.

The Myth of the Racist War on Drugs

A quick way to debunk the idea that strict drug prosecution policy was not based on racism is to show that Black people and Black leaders had heavy influence in supporting these laws.

For more specific analysis:

Marijuana

Do Whites and Blacks use marijuana at the same rate?

The American Civil Liberties Union reported that rates of marijuana use and non-use between whites and Blacks are roughly equal (see chart below).

The data that the ACLU cites doesn’t actually show it being roughly equal. Furthermore, all of the data the ACLU uses for marijuana usage is based on self reports.

First: Self reports on drugs aren’t accurate.

Second: Self reports for drug in general vary among different ethnic groups. Blacks on average are more willing to lie on self reports than the average meaning  self-report data alone isn’t useful.

While it is true that blacks have higher arrest rates for marijuana, there is evidence that shows blacks are willing to be more reckless when buying Marijuana.

“African Americans [as opposed to whites] are nearly twice as likely to buy outdoors (0.31 v 0.14), three times more likely to buy from a stranger (0.30 v 0.09), and significantly more likely to buy away from their homes (0.61 v 0.48).” –Ramchand on Marijuana

Other Drugs

Specifically for cocaine, it’s use is higher among black men than white men; Self-reports are not accurate.

A report issued by the Department of Justice found that African American drug users use drugs more often than White drug users, use more dangerous drugs than White drug users, and higher drug usage rates in high crime areas.

The factors above would make obviously large contributions to a disparity between black and white drug prosecutions.

For a rough estimate of what percentage each racial group uses illicit drugs, 

we can directly compare emergency room visits involving illicit drugs with arrest rates for illicit drugs by proportion. Interestingly enough, whites are over-represented in drug arrests compared to emergency room visits as opposed to blacks.

The Myth of Racism and Traffic Violations

This is a specific case, but I would like to focus on it:

A study in Cincinnati found that black drivers had longer stops and higher search rates than white drivers. However, when the researchers factored for time, place, and context (reason for the stop, validity of the driver’s license, etc.), the disparity vanished. Their conclusion was that differences in the time, place, and context of the stops were the cause of the longer stops and higher search rates.

Often times, raw data may be misleading. Only after organization is when we can abstract real and helpful information.

There is no high level of discrimination (or any amount significant amount for that matter) prior to a traffic stop.

There is a perception that blacks likely to be wrongly pulled over- interestingly enough: 3 out of 4 black drivers admit being stopped by police for a “legitimate reason.”

There are a variety of factors that blacks and other minorities may get pulled over that aren’t necessarily due to racism such as

The Myth of Racist Hate Crimes

When FBI released its data on hate crimes in the United States for 2017, it was revealed that there was a 17% increase over 2016.

There was media hysteria following the revelation from the FBI. The problem is that these numbers don’t mean anything, and if they did- there still isn’t racism.

There are multiple factors that may skew the data of this report.

  • 88% of agencies don’t report or say they have no hate crimes
  • Around 20 Million Americans aren’t subject to these figures, including the entire state of Hawaii.
  • Over 1,000 agencies started recording data for the first time in 2017 (The FBI counted 7,175 hate crimes in 2017, compared with 6,121 in 2016. That’s a difference of about 1,000. If every agency reporting data for the first time in 2017 reported just one hate crime, this would account for the entire 17 percent increase)
  • States and Cities have different classifications for hate crimes
  • Agencies are asked to report suspected hate crimes (that may end up being revealed as hoaxes) and not convicted hate crimes
  • Hispanics are counted as Whites when they are perpetrators, but are counted as Hispanic when they are the victim.
  • Arabs and Middle Easterners are considered White.
ProPublica (2017)

Many southern states just don’t report. The entire city of Miami reported zero hate crimes.

Even though we don’t know how many “white” people are actually white people, if we assume that all white people the FBI says are white are indeed white: Blacks are still twice as likely than whites to commit a hate crime.

While most hate crimes are intimidation, of violent hate crimes: Blacks are 2.4x more likely to be hate criminals than Whites.

All things considered, the Government doesn’t do enough to maintain hate crime statistics to meaningfully analyze them. We honestly just don’t know anything about the numbers that are provided to the public.


The Education System

The Myth of the Alleged School-To-Prison Pipeline

The school-to-prison pipeline describes the disproportionate tendency of minors and young adults from disadvantaged backgrounds to become incarcerated, because of increasingly harsh school and municipal policies.

The Theory is only correct if all children, regardless of racial background, have exactly the same average behavior.

The NYCLU concluded that 99% of students handcuffed in school in 2016 by NYPD were Black or Latinx. Despite the study being conveniently hidden behind a paywall, the major flaws were evident. The White sample was around half of the White demographic of NY and double the Black and Hispanic sample.

Even with that,

The results are misleading at best.

Furthermore, the ACLU claims that one of the factors for the School to Prison Pipeline is Poverty- but the relationship between poverty and crime is statistically weak.

Poverty and violent crime increase with the employment rate, and rich black kids are more likely to go to jail than poor white kids.

With the most recent National Center for Education Statistics report on school and crime safety; it is shown that black and Hispanic kids act out more in class. This may contribute to the disparity.

Outside of class, black teens commit crime at a higher rate than whites, whether it be in mob crime, robbery, or murder. Trends continue inside the classroom. In the halls, blacks and Hispanics are more likely to be bullies.

All of these factors may contribute to the alleged School-to-Prison Pipeline rather than racism.

The Myth of Racist School Suspensions

Are black kids more likely to get suspended as a result from racism?

No.

When factored for prior problems and circumstance, the racial disparity of school suspensions vanishes, similarly Blacks and Whites were equally likely to be suspended once they were sent to the principal’s office.

The Myth of Racist Under-funding of Minority Schools

Public education spending by race is virtually equal among all ethnic groups.

The U.S. public school system is characterized by large funding differences across districts, but what about differences in school spending within these districts?

The Brookings Institute found that:

  • In richer districts, poor and Hispanic students receive more school resources, relative to their non-poor and white peers in the same districts.
  • Districts with more school segregation—whether socioeconomic or racial—tend to spend more on poor and minority students relative to non-poor and white students.
  • Black and Hispanic students receive relatively fewer resources in districts where black or Hispanic family income is more equal to (or even higher than) white family income.

In any case, continuous spending increases have not corresponded with equal improvement in American educational performance.

This can be clearly seen by how Asians are consistently spent less on than their ethnic counterparts, yet out-preform their peers.

The Myth of Racist Student Debt and Financial Help at the University

There is a notion that whites can just go to the university while minorities must face the hardship of working through school- however, this is untrue.

1stimage

Whites, followed by Hispanics, then Blacks were most likely to be working during college.

Do Whites on average have less student debt than a minority upon completing college?

No.

2ndimage

Are whites less hindered by student debt?

No.

Are there any significant differences between whites, blacks and hispanics in terms of how many of them got their parents to pay for their college?

No.

3rdimage

What about grants and institutional money? Do whites relatively get a bunch more money for college.

No.

4thimage
Race / Ethnicity Average Grant Received
Mixed Race $3,127
“Asian” $2,777
Black $2,776
Amerindian $2,614
Hispanics $2,506
Whites $2,414
Pacific Islander $2,020

The Myth of Racist University Admissions

1
Gallup (2005)

Both Whites and Blacks say the opposing race is more likely to get into a college ceteris parabus. Which of these groups is correct?

Whites are correct. Thomas Espenshade, a Princeton sociologist, analyzed data on over 120,000 applicants to the top colleges in America. After factoring for SAT score, family alumni, and athletic membership: black applicants were 5.2 times more likely than white applicants to be admitted. Hispanics were 3.5 more likely than white students to be admitted and Asians were 0.7 times as likely.

Being African American instead of white is worth an average of 230 additional SAT points on a 1600-point scale, but recruited athletes reap an advantage equivalent to 200 SAT points. Other things equal, Hispanic applicants gain the equivalent of 185 points, which is only slightly more than the legacy advantage, which is worth 160 points. Coming from an Asian background, however, is comparable to the loss of 50 SAT points.

Espenshade (2004)

The same hold true for Medical School. Perry (2015) found that if you look at students who apply to American medical schools with MCAT scores of 26-24 (a bad score) and GPAs between 3.2 an 3.39, Blacks are over 7 times more likely than Whites to be admitted while Hispanics are 3.7 times more likely to be admitted. Asians, once again, have an even harder time getting admitted than Whites.

3

Economic System

Supposed racism in the workplace seems to manifest itself in certain ways: pay disparities among ethnic groups, call back discrimination, and loans.

The Myth of Racist Wage Disparities Between Ethnic Groups

Why is there is a earnings gap between minorities and whites?

gayy

Patten (2018)

The gap seems damning, and it should since it also affects income. This leads to an income disparity between blacks and whites. Before we explain this, the earnings gap between blacks and whites actually isn’t that big. Controlling for IQ made the earnings gap between blacks and whites shrink from thousands to almost a negligible difference.

p._323_After_controlling_for_IQ,_ethnic_wage_differentials_shrink_from_thousands_to_a_few_hundred_dollars

The Myth of Racist Inheritance

There is a notion that one of the reasons that whites tend to amass a disproportionate amount of wealth compared to blacks is the existence of inheritance (see chart below)

Rate of and Median Value of Inheritance by Race

Race / Ethnicity % w/ inheritance Median Value of Inheritance Average of Median Inheritance Per Person
White 22.9 $55,207 $12,642
Black 10.6 $49,441 $5,271
Hispanic 5.5 $28,708 $1,579

However, Blacks accumulate around the same amount of wealth even with inheritance

Mean and Median Wealth by Race among those with NO INHERITANCE

Race / Ethnicity Median Mean
Black $33,969 $185,702
Hispanic $38,125 $196,541
White $183,050 $742,627

This means, the existence of future wealth from inheritance is not inherently racist.

2018-11-19 (4)

The Myth of Call-Back Discrimination

A study entitled “Are Emily and Greg More Employable than Lakisha and Jamal” supposedly found that resumes from blacks sounding names are less likely to get call backs from employers than resumes from white sounding names.

The first problem with this study is that it assumes all black sounding names are equal. Black Harvard economist, Roland Fryer concludes that after taking into account the socioeconomic correlates of distinctively African-American sounding names, the large effect of these names on employer responses attenuates

When examining data regarding perceptions of race from names. The data suggest that if names did play a role, it’s because of factors other than race. Names given by highly educated black mothers like Jalen and Nia are less likely to be perceived as having a low SES compared to Lakisha and Jamal.

Unfortunately a large body of social science evidence on racial discrimination operates under a misguided assumption that all black names are alike; the findings from correspondence audits are likely sensitive to name selections in which employers would have made assumptions about education and income rather than race itself.

Replication

The Bertrand study sent less than 5,000 resumes to only four occupational categories in two cities. An Updated Analysis of Race and Gender Effects on Employer Interest in Job Applicants (2016) almost doubles the sample size, increases the cities being tested on, increases occupational categories from four to six, and increases the racial groups being tested from two to three. To control for discrepancies of SES perceptions in different black, white, and hispanic names, they based their names on common racial names from the United States Census. There was no significant evidence found of employer discrimination between Whites, Hispanics, and Blacks or between Male and Female applicants.

If one actually takes SES perceptions and other factors in account when comparing names– the disparities immediately vanish

I also suggest reading this article as it goes through the first study as a bonus.

The Myth of Racist Redlining and Home Loans

Are blacks are denied loans more often compared to their white counterparts?

Yes.

Is racism a factor?

No.

To quickly debunk this myth, black owned banks actually discriminated over a hundred percent more than white owned banks against black people.

3.PNG

For a pure statistic argument:

On average, blacks had lower saving rates than whites even after controlling for income, age, family size, education and marital status- and blacks had on average different spending patterns.

These differences in spending behavior explain why Blacks and Whites with equal incomes do not have the same credit scores. As reported by The Washington Post:

“The study found that whites earning less than $25,000 had better credit records as a group than African Americans earning between $65,000 and $75,000. Overall, 48 percent of blacks and 27 percent of whites had bad credit ratings, as defined by Freddie Mac in this study.” – Loose, The Washington Post

Even when credit scores are factored for, the Federal Reserve reported that:

“Consistently, across all three credit scores and all five performance measures, blacks, single individuals, individuals residing in lower-income or predominantly minority census tracts show consistently higher incidences of bad performance than would be predicted by the credit scores. Similarly, Asians, married individuals, foreign-born (particularly, recent immigrants), and those residing in higher-income census tracts consistently perform better than predicted by their credit scores”

In other words, if you give out a loan to a Black, White, and Asian with equal credit scores you are more likely to get your money back from the Asian, White and Black respectively.


Environmental System

The Myth of Racist Lead Exposure

While historically black children have had significantly higher lead exposure, that gap has since narrowed. It is noteworthy that it has decreased among blacks by a larger margin.

The difference today [of lead exposure] between black and white kids is fairly modest.

Mother Jones

By adulthood, this disparity nearly vanishes

BLL by Race.png

 Tsoi et al. (2016),  Pricket et al.(1994)

It is unlikely that lead exposure is what causes the crime culture in urban black cities- even after controlling for Lead exposure (among other things) variables such as how black an area was were still heavy predictors of crime.

Conclusion

While many claim there is Institutional racism by raw disproportionate demographics, one must go no further than the actual data to see that racism doesn’t play a major part in the said institutions.

That being said, there may be real and present dangers emanating from these aforementioned institutions but racism, as defined by Oxford dictionary, plays no part.

2 thoughts on “American “Racism”

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